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Human Trafficking: Domestic Human Trafficking

This libguide provides insight into the topic of human trafficking --domestic, foreign, and international.

Relevant Literature

U.S. Government Domestic Anti-Trafficking Efforts

Within the U.S. Department of State is the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (OMCTP). The OMCTP provides a summary of the U.S. Domestic Anti-Trafficking Efforts regarding prosecution, protection, and prevention. The summary also provides a recommendation for these domestic efforts.

Specific States

Polaris Project provides interactive maps which contain State Ratings for 2014 on Human Trafficking Laws and all pending state legislation.

Articles & Additional Resources

U.S. Laws and Legislation on Trafficking in Persons

The following Acts enable the United States to combat human trafficking both domestically and internationally. The Acts also established the Government Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (GTIP) and the President's Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons to assist with the coordination of anti-trafficking efforts. 

  • Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000  (P.L. 106-386),
  • Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003 (H.R. 2620),
  • Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 (H.R. 972), and
  • Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 (H.R. 7311) 

U.S. Human Trafficking Case Law

There have been a number of federal court cases involving the issue of human trafficking: mostly with the district and circuit courts. 

  • In Ditullio v. Boehm662 F.3d 1091 (9th Cir. 2011), the plaintiff, who alleged she was one of the victims in a human trafficking conspiracy, brought action against perpetrator, who had pled guilty to conspiracy to engage in human trafficking, seeking compensatory and punitive damages under the TVPA. The Ninth Circuit, as a matter of first impression, held that punitive damages are available under TVPA, but TVPA could not be applied retroactively to create liability for conduct that occurred before 12/19/2003.
  • In U.S. v. Afolabi, 508 F. App'x 111 (3d Cir. 2013), the defendant was previously convicted in the district court on 22 counts relating to her participation in visa fraud and human trafficking and appealed the submission of evidence (intimidating victims) at the district court level. The Third Circuit affirmed.
  • In United States v. Calimlim, 538 F.3d 706 (7th Cir. 2008), the defendants were previously convicted of obtaining and conspiring to obtain forced labor and harboring and conspiring to harbor alien for private financial gain. The Seventh Circuit affirmed the defendants’ convictions but vacated their sentences and remanded the case for resentencing.

Other U.S. Trafficking Cases

U.S. Code

Domestic Anti-Trafficking Organizations

Innocents at Risk, a U.S. 501(c)(3) nonprofit founded to fight child exploitation and human trafficking.

International Justice Mission, a U.S based non-profit human rights organization that operates in countries all over the world to rescue victims of individual human rights abuse

Love 146 – US based anti human trafficking organization

MATTOO (Men Against The Trafficking Of Others) U.S. based organization seeks to end global human sex trafficking by addressing the demand.

Million Kids (Riverside, California) serves as the Training and Outreach Coordinator for the Riverside County Sheriff Anti-Human Trafficking Task Force.

Not for Sale Campaign, a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization based out of California

Pillars of Hope, Inc. a faith based non profit that opposes human trafficking; is raising awareness and funds to build a restoration center in California; working to raise awareness of the tragedy occurring in the United States.

Polaris Project, a nonprofit, non-governmental organization that works to combat and prevent modern day slavery and human trafficking

Rapha House, a public benefit 501(c)(3) nonprofit committed to ending human trafficking, bonded labor and the sexual exploitation of children.

Real Escape from the Sex Trade (REST) is a 501c3 faith-based nonprofit organization in Seattle, WA working to provide a path to freedom, safety and hope for victims of sex trafficking and people involved in the sex trade through direct services, prevention, mentorship, restorative housing, case management, educational assistance and demand reduction efforts.

Ride for Refuge, a cycling event that raises awareness and funds for displaced persons, including human trafficking victims

Run 2 Rescue, a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization based in California that reaches, rescues and restores victims of sex trafficking.

Salvando Corazones is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that runs safe houses and is dedicated to the fight against human trafficking in Costa Rica.

Shared Hope International. ( Shared Hope is an organization focused on eradicating sex trafficking by prevention, restoration, and justice.

Slavery Footprint, a nonprofit organization based in Oakland, California that works to end human trafficking and modern-day slavery.

Somaly Mam Foundation, a registered 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization focused on combating the global sex slave trade through supporting the rescue, rehabilitation, and reintegration of the victims and through raising global awareness on the issue

 Stop Child Trafficking Now, an organization founded by Lynette Lewis, an author and public speaker

The Defender Foundation, a 501(c)3 Non-Governmental Agency formed to fight human trafficking through active activism of volunteers and tactical rescue teams (Shield Teams) who physically rescue victims both in the U.S. and worldwide

The Protection Project, a 501(c)3 Non-Governmental organization based at the Johns Hopkins University, School of Advanced International Studies in Washington DC which advises governments on drafting and implementing anti-trafficking legislation and promotes the inclusion of trafficking in the curriculum of universities around the world

Traffic J.A.M., International is a 501(c)3 dedicated to preventing commercial sexual exploitation in countries of origin through grass roots networks. Awareness cells are working in Universities, bus stations, plazas, elementary & secondary schools, markets, among taxi drivers & hotel staff ... Websites in English: and in Spanish

Unlikely Heroes, an international, non-profit organization based in Los Angeles, CA that rescues and restores child victims of sex slavery worldwide, founded by Erica Greve

Truckers Against Trafficking, a nonprofit organization that trains truck drivers to recognize and report instances of human trafficking

Virginia Beach Justice Initiative, A Virginia organization that hopes to bring an end to the issue of sex trafficking by empowering the residents of Virginia Beach and surrounding cities through education and awareness, advocacy and prevention campaigns. (

World Orphans, an organization that funds the creation of orphanages in developing countries.

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